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Old 12-02-2011, 12:30 PM
LinuxIsOne
 
Default What I do for a new machine?

On Fri, Dec 2, 2011 at 8:20 AM, Olivier Pavilla
<olivier.pavilla@linux-squad.com> wrote:

> In my case I do this for all of my laptops

> / is on /dev/sda2
> /boot is on /dev/sda1
> /home is on /dev/sda4 <= encrypted
> /opt is on /dev/sda6
> /tmp is on /dev/sda5
> /usr/local is on /dev/sda8
> /var is on /dev/sda7
> swap is on /dev/sda9 <= encrypted

But where is /dev/sda3?

Okay if I do like this, but encrypting it during installation means we
are securing it from attacks? You have shown swap also to be
encrypted, so swap also gets attacked? And for 250 GB hard disk and 2
GB RAM, should this be fine:

/ = 20 GB
/boot = 5 GB
/home = 180 GB
/opt = 10 GB
/tmp = 10 GB
/usr/local = 10 GB
/var = 10 GB
swap = 5 GB

Thanks.

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Old 12-02-2011, 12:32 PM
LinuxIsOne
 
Default What I do for a new machine?

On Fri, Dec 2, 2011 at 8:21 AM, Ioannis Vranos <ioannis.vranos@gmail.com> wrote:

> Usually it makes sense to separate directories on multiuser/server
> systems to avoid DOS attacks. For example, if you have all directories
> in the same partition, an attacker who is a local user, could fill his
> /home/user directory, or the /tmp directory, so as the system to run
> out of space and collapse.

Oh I see.

> Also it makes sense to make the /home directory separate, if you want
> to upgrade your Linux distribution version, but want your users to
> keep their files and settings.

Ok.

> For home users, installing all in the same / partition is OK and simple.

But even if I use the separate partitions in the home desktop, I guess
there is more protection....

Thanks.

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Old 12-02-2011, 01:04 PM
Hakan Koseoglu
 
Default What I do for a new machine?

On 2 December 2011 13:30, LinuxIsOne <linuxisone@gmail.com> wrote:
>> / is on /dev/sda2
>> /boot is on /dev/sda1
>> /home is on /dev/sda4 <= encrypted
>> /opt is on /dev/sda6
>> /tmp is on /dev/sda5
>> /usr/local is on /dev/sda8
>> /var is on /dev/sda7
>> swap is on /dev/sda9 <= encrypted
> But where is /dev/sda3?
Looking at above, /dev/sda3 appears to be the extended volume partition.

In any case, I would recommend LVM in such setups since it allows you
to resize the partition sizes significantly easier than partitions.

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Old 12-02-2011, 01:10 PM
LinuxIsOne
 
Default What I do for a new machine?

On Fri, Dec 2, 2011 at 9:04 AM, Hakan Koseoglu wrote:

>>> / is on /dev/sda2
>>> /boot is on /dev/sda1
>>> /home is on /dev/sda4 <= encrypted
>>> /opt is on /dev/sda6
>>> /tmp is on /dev/sda5
>>> /usr/local is on /dev/sda8
>>> /var is on /dev/sda7
>>> swap is on /dev/sda9 <= encrypted
>> But where is /dev/sda3?

> Looking at above, /dev/sda3 appears to be the extended volume partition.

But I saw somewhere: Number 3 is reserved only for primary even if it
is not there? Means ...confusing if I am wrong..? Or right...?

Thanks.

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Old 12-02-2011, 01:29 PM
Liam Proven
 
Default What I do for a new machine?

On 2 December 2011 13:13, LinuxIsOne <linuxisone@gmail.com> wrote:
> Hi,
>
> For a new machine, I am going to install Ubuntu but I am not able to
> understand, should I install it with the default options or should
> separate the partitions for:
>
> /
> /home
> /boot
> /swap
>
> Can one elaborate the pros and cons?

You don't need /boot any more. It was useful about a decade or more
ago when many BIOSes had limitations such as being unable to boot from
cylinders on the hard disk numbered above 1024, or were unable to boot
from sections above a certain size limit - at various times, there
were limitations above 32MB, 512MB, 8GB, 32GB and 120GB.

Now, don't worry about it.

You need / and swap. Having /home as well is useful.

For / - depending on the size of your disk - 16GB is generous and 32GB
is massive. For swap, use 2× the amount of physical RAM, as a
guideline. That is very generous. All the rest of the space you can
give to /home.

The simplest system is:

Primary partition (e.g. /dev/sda1) = /
Extended partition = all the rest of the space
1st logical partition (e.g. /dev/sda5) = /home
2nd (e.g. /dev/sda6) = swap

Some people claim there is a performance drop due to swap at the end
of the disk. This is not true. I have tested it, directly,
extensively, with thorough benchmarks. There was no measurable
difference to the 2nd decimal place in the mid-1990s and disks were a
LOT slower then. Now, it does not matter at all.


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Old 12-02-2011, 01:35 PM
LinuxIsOne
 
Default What I do for a new machine?

On Fri, Dec 2, 2011 at 9:29 AM, Liam Proven <lproven@gmail.com> wrote:

> You don't need /boot any more. It was useful about a decade or more
> ago when many BIOSes had limitations such as being unable to boot from
> cylinders on the hard disk numbered above 1024, or were unable to boot
> from sections above a certain size limit - at various times, there
> were limitations above 32MB, 512MB, 8GB, 32GB and 120GB.

> Now, don't worry about it.

> You need / and swap. Having /home as well is useful.

> For / - depending on the size of your disk - 16GB is generous and 32GB
> is massive. For swap, use 2 the amount of physical RAM, as a
> guideline. That is very generous. All the rest of the space you can
> give to /home.

> The simplest system is:

> Primary partition (e.g. /dev/sda1) = /
> Extended partition = all the rest of the space
> 1st logical partition (e.g. /dev/sda5) = /home
> 2nd (e.g. /dev/sda6) = swap

> Some people claim there is a performance drop due to swap at the end
> of the disk. This is not true. I have tested it, directly,
> extensively, with thorough benchmarks. There was no measurable
> difference to the 2nd decimal place in the mid-1990s and disks were a
> LOT slower then. Now, it does not matter at all.

That is good, but just as a point of information please let me know if
I separate also like Olivier said -

ext4 / = 20 GB
ext4 /boot = 5 GB
ext4 /home = 180 GB (encrypted)
ext4 /opt = 10 GB
ext4 /tmp = 10 GB
ext4 /usr/local = 10 GB
ext4 /var = 10 GB
swap = 5 GB (encrypted)

there should/should not be any harm....if we do...(just for knowledge)...

Thanks.

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Old 12-02-2011, 02:04 PM
Liam Proven
 
Default What I do for a new machine?

On 2 December 2011 14:35, LinuxIsOne <linuxisone@gmail.com> wrote:
> On Fri, Dec 2, 2011 at 9:29 AM, Liam Proven <lproven@gmail.com> wrote:
>
>> You don't need /boot any more. It was useful about a decade or more
>> ago when many BIOSes had limitations such as being unable to boot from
>> cylinders on the hard disk numbered above 1024, or were unable to boot
>> from sections above a certain size limit - at various times, there
>> were limitations above 32MB, 512MB, 8GB, 32GB and 120GB.
>
>> Now, don't worry about it.
>
>> You need / and swap. Having /home as well is useful.
>
>> For / - depending on the size of your disk - 16GB is generous and 32GB
>> is massive. For swap, use 2× the amount of physical RAM, as a
>> guideline. That is very generous. All the rest of the space you can
>> give to /home.
>
>> The simplest system is:
>
>> Primary partition (e.g. /dev/sda1) = /
>> Extended partition = all the rest of the space
>> 1st logical partition (e.g. /dev/sda5) = /home
>> 2nd (e.g. /dev/sda6) = swap
>
>> Some people claim there is a performance drop due to swap at the end
>> of the disk. This is not true. I have tested it, directly,
>> extensively, with thorough benchmarks. There was no measurable
>> difference to the 2nd decimal place in the mid-1990s and disks were a
>> LOT slower then. Now, it does not matter at all.
>
> That is good, but just as a point of information please let me know if
> I separate also like Olivier said -
>
> ext4 / = 20 GB
> ext4 /boot = 5 GB
> ext4 /home = 180 GB (encrypted)
> ext4 /opt = 10 GB
> ext4 /tmp = 10 GB
> ext4 /usr/local = 10 GB
> ext4 /var = 10 GB
> swap = 5 GB (encrypted)

I see no benefit, and a lot of extra complexity, and arguably a waste
of disk space.

If you want to dual-boot at some time - perhaps to try out the next
version of Ubuntu without wiping this one - then it will be /much/
harder with such a setup. It is harder to create, harder to maintain,
will be harder to copy to another drive if you upgrade, and there is
no real benefit.

There arguably are, or *were*, benefits to this approach on big Unix
servers, especially in the old days, 2-3 decades ago. Now, when data
recovery means booting off a LiveCD, there is no benefit but a lot of
cost.

My advice would be: no, don't do it. There is no point.

/ (root), home and swap is all you need. You don't *need* a separate
/home but it can be very handy.

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Email: lproven@cix.co.uk • GMail/GoogleTalk/Orkut: lproven@gmail.com
Tel: +44 20-8685-0498 • Cell: +44 7939-087884 • Fax: + 44 870-9151419
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Old 12-02-2011, 02:06 PM
LinuxIsOne
 
Default What I do for a new machine?

On Fri, Dec 2, 2011 at 10:04 AM, Liam Proven <lproven@gmail.com> wrote:

> I see no benefit, and a lot of extra complexity, and arguably a waste
> of disk space.

> If you want to dual-boot at some time - perhaps to try out the next
> version of Ubuntu without wiping this one - then it will be /much/
> harder with such a setup. It is harder to create, harder to maintain,
> will be harder to copy to another drive if you upgrade, and there is
> no real benefit.

> There arguably are, or *were*, benefits to this approach on big Unix
> servers, especially in the old days, 2-3 decades ago. Now, when data
> recovery means booting off a LiveCD, there is no benefit but a lot of
> cost.

> My advice would be: no, don't do it. There is no point.

> / (root), home and swap is all you need. You don't *need* a separate
> /home but it can be very handy.

Well I now set up those three partitions only.

Thanks.

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Old 12-02-2011, 02:13 PM
Olivier Pavilla
 
Default What I do for a new machine?

Le 02/12/2011 16:04, Liam Proven a crit :
> On 2 December 2011 14:35, LinuxIsOne <linuxisone@gmail.com> wrote:
>> On Fri, Dec 2, 2011 at 9:29 AM, Liam Proven <lproven@gmail.com> wrote:
>>
>>> You don't need /boot any more. It was useful about a decade or more
>>> ago when many BIOSes had limitations such as being unable to boot from
>>> cylinders on the hard disk numbered above 1024, or were unable to boot
>>> from sections above a certain size limit - at various times, there
>>> were limitations above 32MB, 512MB, 8GB, 32GB and 120GB.
>>
>>> Now, don't worry about it.
>>
>>> You need / and swap. Having /home as well is useful.
>>
>>> For / - depending on the size of your disk - 16GB is generous and 32GB
>>> is massive. For swap, use 2 the amount of physical RAM, as a
>>> guideline. That is very generous. All the rest of the space you can
>>> give to /home.
>>
>>> The simplest system is:
>>
>>> Primary partition (e.g. /dev/sda1) = /
>>> Extended partition = all the rest of the space
>>> 1st logical partition (e.g. /dev/sda5) = /home
>>> 2nd (e.g. /dev/sda6) = swap
>>
>>> Some people claim there is a performance drop due to swap at the end
>>> of the disk. This is not true. I have tested it, directly,
>>> extensively, with thorough benchmarks. There was no measurable
>>> difference to the 2nd decimal place in the mid-1990s and disks were a
>>> LOT slower then. Now, it does not matter at all.
>>
>> That is good, but just as a point of information please let me know if
>> I separate also like Olivier said -
>>
>> ext4 / = 20 GB
>> ext4 /boot = 5 GB
>> ext4 /home = 180 GB (encrypted)
>> ext4 /opt = 10 GB
>> ext4 /tmp = 10 GB
>> ext4 /usr/local = 10 GB
>> ext4 /var = 10 GB
>> swap = 5 GB (encrypted)
>
> I see no benefit, and a lot of extra complexity, and arguably a waste
> of disk space.
>
> If you want to dual-boot at some time - perhaps to try out the next
> version of Ubuntu without wiping this one - then it will be /much/
> harder with such a setup. It is harder to create, harder to maintain,
> will be harder to copy to another drive if you upgrade, and there is
> no real benefit.

I'm not agree with you. And I think you think anyone must think the same
as yours.
Maybe it's too much complex for you but it's not.
this was an example of partitions. I didn't advice anyone to copy
/ is on /dev/sda2
/boot is on /dev/sda1
/home is on /dev/sda4 <= encrypted
/opt is on /dev/sda6
/tmp is on /dev/sda5
/usr/local is on /dev/sda8
/var is on /dev/sda7
swap is on /dev/sda9 <= encrypted

So this using is for laptop. In my world there is some thief. And
sometimes there are little bit curious about what they stole. With /home
and swap encrypted. My private data are lost for me and the thief.

In my case. I really don't care with windows. So. There is only one OS.
Linux ubuntu. Dual boot is not for this schema of partition.

You think you're modern. You're just little bit arrogant...

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Old 12-02-2011, 02:37 PM
Oliver Grawert
 
Default What I do for a new machine?

hi,
On Fri, 02 Dec 2011 16:13:53 +0100
Olivier Pavilla <olivier.pavilla@linux-squad.com> wrote:

> I'm not agree with you. And I think you think anyone must think the
> same as yours.
> Maybe it's too much complex for you but it's not.

i definitely is very complex unless you exactly know what you do ....

> /boot is on /dev/sda1
ubuntu does not remove old kernels if new ones are installed, you
should exactly know what size you pick for this partition if you want
it separate ...

> /home is on /dev/sda4 <= encrypted
you can as well encrypt your homedir if its on a single partition
setup, the installer offers this at user creation time

> /opt is on /dev/sda6
only makes sense if you actually install a lot third party SW that isnt
packaged, else this dir will simply stay empty and you waste diskspace

> /tmp is on /dev/sda5
again, you should know how big this has to be as many apps cache
opeerational data in it

> /usr/local is on /dev/sda8
same thing as for /opt applies here, ususally not used on an ubuntu
system.

> /var is on /dev/sda7
contains several caches (apt, dpkg, databases etc) and grows a lot over
time ...

> swap is on /dev/sda9 <= encrypted
if you want to use hibernation (i.e. on a laptop), you dont want
encrypted swap...

> You think you're modern. You're just little bit arrogant...
>
please dont be insulting, liam made a valid claim, a multi partition
setup is clearly for advanced users, i can see no level of arrogance
in his post ...

ciao
oli
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