FAQ Search Today's Posts Mark Forums Read
» Video Reviews

» Linux Archive

Linux-archive is a website aiming to archive linux email lists and to make them easily accessible for linux users/developers.


» Sponsor

» Partners

» Sponsor

Go Back   Linux Archive > Debian > Debian User

 
 
LinkBack Thread Tools
 
Old 10-10-2012, 08:57 AM
Lisi
 
Default Partition Scheme for installing Debian Squeeze

Hi, Wally!

On Wednesday 10 October 2012 02:22:38 Wally Lepore wrote:
> Based on the above, can a directory/partition be named */usr/local *?
> and */var/mail ? I thought a directory can have only one name (i.e.
> /usr -or- */local -or- */var -or- */mail).

Directories usually have subdirectories. Let's take /usr/local. There are
three directories specified here. / , usr and mail. That is: root (not to
be confused with root's home directory), the "root" of the directory "tree";
usr which is a sub-directory of / , and local which is a subdirectory of usr.
And those are directories, which are not the same thing as partitions.

Wally, I really do think that you should just stop worrying and install. It
doesn't matter if you make mistakes, you can just reinstall. You have
another windows drive which could just be swapped in, so nothing crucial can
go wrong. If you ask 10 people how to partition your system, you will get 10
different answers. There are arguments that can be adduced to all the
choices that you suggest you face. And then there is LVM ...

Is this going to be a production system? If not, and you are just going to be
learning, then you can reinstall repeatedly to find out the answers to your
questions. And once you have installed you will be able to look at your
directory tree.

Lisi


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
Archive: 201210100957.21010.lisi.reisz@gmail.com">http://lists.debian.org/201210100957.21010.lisi.reisz@gmail.com
 
Old 10-10-2012, 09:01 AM
Lisi
 
Default Partition Scheme for installing Debian Squeeze

On Wednesday 10 October 2012 09:41:28 Brian wrote:
> For the use you will put the OS to I'd stick to your plan.

Sorry, Wally. I had obviously forgotten something you had said. My bad!

Lisi


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
Archive: 201210101001.25999.lisi.reisz@gmail.com">http://lists.debian.org/201210101001.25999.lisi.reisz@gmail.com
 
Old 10-10-2012, 12:38 PM
lee
 
Default Partition Scheme for installing Debian Squeeze

Wally Lepore <wallylepore@gmail.com> writes:

Thank you for putting up your questions in such a well made way!

> An interesting side note: Both identical drives are 'Enhanced IDE'
> drives (EIDE). However for some reason during the debian set-up, the
> installer identified them as SCSI drives and labeled them as follows
>
> SCSI1 (0,0,0) (sda) -80.0 GB ATA WDC [serial number]
> SCSI1 (0,1,0) (sdb) -80.0 GB ATA WDC [serial number]
>
> Question #1 please:
> Is this SCSI labeling something I can ignore? I continued on and moved
> forward to the partition section (where I'm at now) with no issues.

That should be ok. However, it's been a long time that I used IDE
disks, so I don't know for sure.

> My partition scheme (that I have not set-up yet and based somewhat on
> the above link) will be as follows:
>
> 1st Partition -- Boot Partition
> /boot -- Type: Primary -- 500MB -- Ext4 journaling file system --
> Location: Beginning
>
> Second Partition -- Root Partition
> / -- Type: Logical -- 15000MB -- Ext4 journaling file system
> -- Location: Beginning
>
> 3rd Partition -- Home Partition
> /home -- Type: Logical -- 60000MB -- Ext4 journaling file system --
> Location: Beginning
>
> SWAP Area
> Swap -- Type: Logical -- 2000MB -- Ext4 journaling file system --
> Location: Beginning
>
> Question #2 please:
> Is this an acceptable partition set-up? Based on a disk capacity of 80
> gigs, are the allotted partition sizes acceptable? Any suggestions
> please ?

It depends on what you want to use the computer for. If you (mainly)
use it to learn programming in C/C++/Object C, you're not like to need a
lot of space on /var and probably no /opt partition, for example.

To give you some numbers:


Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/vg0-root 4.7G 1.2G 3.3G 27% /
/dev/mapper/vg0-tmp 93G 1.5G 87G 2% /tmp
/dev/mapper/vg0-usr 47G 9.5G 35G 22% /usr
/dev/mapper/vg0-usrlocal 19G 545M 18G 4% /usr/local
/dev/mapper/vg0-var 93G 19G 70G 22% /var
/dev/mapper/vg0-rest 104G 16G 83G 16% /var/spool/squid-00


This kind of partitioning is the result of my experience and having
plenty disk space for the system. I do not have /boot on a separate
partiton, and "du -hs /boot" says that 69MB are used. The /var
partition is large because I'm running a web server, and I'm using
squid. Squid puts its files into /var/spool/squid and
/var/spool/squid-00, and 14GB of the 19GB in /var are used by squid.

On /usr/local/, I have emacs24, fvwm, i3 (these are too old in Debian
testing) and a few libraries. That's why 545MB are used there.

Since you have a smaller disk, the actual partition sizes aren't
relevant. What these numbers tell you is how much space you may want to
plan on for each of the different partitions. You might want something
like this:


swap 10GB [1]
/ 2GB including /boot
/usr 12GB
/var 2GB
/tmp 2GB
/home the rest of it


It adds up to 28GB, so that leaves you 52GB for /home. Since this is
either plenty or totally insufficient, I'd make the partitions a little
larger because in any case, it doesn't really matter if your /home is
10GB more or less. You'll get something like this:


swap 10GB [1]
/ 3GB including /boot
/usr 15GB
/var 4GB
/tmp 4GB
/home the rest of it


[1]: There's a recommendation to have swap partitions at the very
beginning of the disk because it's supposed to be faster. I'd make
it that large because you might want to do something that needs a
lot of memory and because with only 2GB, you may run out too soon.
Besides, swap space is a way to slow things down before the system
starts killing off processes when it runs out of memory which can
bring it down. It improves your chances to kill processes
yourself, making better decisions about which ones to kill. If
you're getting tight, make swap at leas 5GB.

> I am also 'meticulously' reading the debian install instructions as
> well and Debian mentions other available directories such as:
> dev, lib, opt, var, usr, sys --- etc. Please see the list of
> additional directories:
> http://www.debian.org/releases/stable/i386/apcs02.html.en
>
> Question #3 please:
> I am not sure if I need to include 'any' of these additional
> directories (listed above) in my partition scheme.

The only actually additional one is /opt. Applixware (which AFAIK
doesn't exist anymore) suggested installing under /opt. Other than
that, I've never found any other use for /opt than putting games on it.
For games, your disk is too small to have a reasonably sized /opt
partition, and nothing forces you to put anything there, so you don't
really need it.

You will have the other directories.

> I am also studying the following programming languages: 'C' then C++
> and Object 'C' and would like to know if I need to include any
> additional directories/partitions (from the list above) for my
> 'programming' needs.

You may want to put your own programs into /usr/local, that's why I
listed it above. If you have 36GB in partitions as above, you can spare
like 2GB and still have 42GB for /home (instead of 44GB). I have a
directory ~/inst where I put all stuff I might install, for example the
sources of emacs, fvwm and i3. That has grown over years (like
everything else) and holds currently 23GB, so you're still fine for
programming with a 42GB home. I also have a directory ~/src with stuff I
wrote myself, and it's only 108MB.

> System specs:
>
> iWill DVD266R motherboard
> 'Dual' Pentium III cpu's (1 GHz each) Total: 2 GHz
> 1 gig DDR memory
> CD-R/RW
> DVD - R/RW

That may be somewhat slow for programming when you compile stuff.
You're really tight on RAM, so you'll probably want a slim X11 session.
In any case, install a minimal system and add what you need later. As
for your X11 session for programming, you might be happy with emacs (and
gnus for your email, so the first thing is to compile emacs because the
one in Debian is too old) as an editor, i3 as a window manager and rxvt
as a terminal, and maybe tmux.

Having that said, you might get away with about 5GB for /usr. I won't
do that, though, because it just sucks when you later find you made it
too small --- and it doesn't really matter if /home is 10GB more or
less. If you need more space, better get another disk and use that for
/home --- preferably at least two so you can use RAID.

Do not install/use the console-kit-daemon. It creates and keeps about a
hundred threads and slows things down noticeably.


--
Debian testing iad96 brokenarch


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
Archive: 87txu2ijrw.fsf@yun.yagibdah.de">http://lists.debian.org/87txu2ijrw.fsf@yun.yagibdah.de
 
Old 10-10-2012, 12:42 PM
lee
 
Default Partition Scheme for installing Debian Squeeze

Wally Lepore <wallylepore@gmail.com> writes:

> I forgot to add this additional information. I am installing Debian
> netinst file titled: debian-6.0.6-i386-netinst.iso (32 bit)

Isn't it better to go 64bit and to use the life installer CD? It might
make more sense to go 64bit when you do programming. And I've seen
Intel Dual cores capable of running 64bit being extremely slow when
running 32bit.


--
Debian testing iad96 brokenarch


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
Archive: 87pq4qijmr.fsf@yun.yagibdah.de">http://lists.debian.org/87pq4qijmr.fsf@yun.yagibdah.de
 
Old 10-10-2012, 12:43 PM
lee
 
Default Partition Scheme for installing Debian Squeeze

Wally Lepore <wallylepore@gmail.com> writes:

> In order to be sure that Debian installs successfully, I also have a
> USB stick that has the required debian firmware files loaded in the
> event the debian installer asks for it during set-up.

I needed that once and found I had to unpack these drivers on the
stick. With that, it worked just fine.


--
Debian testing iad96 brokenarch


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
Archive: 87lifeijks.fsf@yun.yagibdah.de">http://lists.debian.org/87lifeijks.fsf@yun.yagibdah.de
 
Old 10-10-2012, 01:06 PM
lee
 
Default Partition Scheme for installing Debian Squeeze

Wally Lepore <wallylepore@gmail.com> writes:

> space I have allocated to each partition? As you can see I have an 80
> gig drive (total) that I'm installing debian too. Should I leave some
> 'free space' in the event I want to add another directory in the
> future?

Sooner or later, you might add more disks and then you have the space
you use for /home free on the 80GB one. I left some space free because
I didn't have use or need for it and it remained unused for almost three
years until I wanted some more space for squid. Three years is quite a
bit of time for that when you have only 80GB to begin with.

Since your disk is small, you're probably better off not to leave free
space and just use it for /home instead. If you do leave it free, you
might end up mounting it somewhere under /home anyway. That mainly
makes it more awkward to make backups and doesn't give you as much
additional space as you would wish and is just annoying.


Hard disk prices may go down a bit in a while, and you might be able to
get 3TB disks for under $100. You're talking about maybe 10GB here to
leave free, which is kinda out of proportion compared to both an 80GB
and a 3TB disk


--
Debian testing iad96 brokenarch


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
Archive: 87haq2iiir.fsf@yun.yagibdah.de">http://lists.debian.org/87haq2iiir.fsf@yun.yagibdah.de
 
Old 10-10-2012, 02:02 PM
lee
 
Default Partition Scheme for installing Debian Squeeze

Wally Lepore <wallylepore@gmail.com> writes:

> I have 1 gig of DDR RAM. Thus your suggesting I make the swap 2 gigs?
> I do let my system hibernate. Also, if I set the swap to 2 gigs, then
> the Appendix section 'C3' says,
>
> On some 32-bit architectures (m68k and PowerPC), the maximum size of a
> swap partition is 2GB. That should be enough for nearly any
> installation. However, if your swap requirements are this high, you
> should probably try to spread the swap across different disks (also
> called “spindles”) and, if possible, different SCSI or IDE channels.
> The kernel will balance swap usage between multiple swap partitions,
> giving better performance. -end-
>
> Not sure if this applies to me and my system?

Your architecture is i386 (or amd64 if you can go that way, or
brokenarch), so m68k and PowerPC won't apply.

Hibernating is unlikely to work. If it does work, it involves to store
the contents of the RAM in the swap space, which may occupy 1GB. Have
another GB or more swapped out already, and you're running too low on
swap space with only 2GB of it.

To give you more numbers: Open a scanned A4 page in gimp, and gimp can
easily take about 4.7GB when you used "high" resolution for archiving
when scanning the page. Your X-session with emacs and i3 and rxvt may
hold about 500MB resident in memory. You also want some memory for disk
cache and other stuff you're running, so 1GB is really tight. (You may
want to experiment with vm_swappiness to see if that can speed things up
for you.) Add to that the amount of overcomittment and then imagine
what happens when even only one application starts to actually use some
of the memory it has allocated.

Of course, you can do without an X-session. If you want to use a web
browser, you'll probably want something fully featured like seamonkey
rather than a text browser, and that adds about another 500MB or more
resident. So you need more RAM than you have already, and now you want
to limit your swap space to only 2GB?

> Based on the above, can a directory/partition be named /usr/local ?
> and /var/mail ? I thought a directory can have only one name (i.e.
> /usr -or- /local -or- /var -or- /mail).

You need to distinguish between file systems, partitions and
directories. You can create file systems on partitions and you can
create directories in file systems. You can mount file systems on mount
points which are usually directories --- however, the distinction
becomes unclear because you usually mount partitions (that contain file
systems) on mount points.

So you can have, for example, a file system F with a directory named
"usr" and mount a partition P on it that contains a file system F2 that
contains files that are expected to be found under /usr (or other
files). Now F2 can contain a directory named "local", and once P is
mounted on /usr, you can mount a partition P2 which contains a file
system that contains files to be found under /usr/local (or other files)
on /usr/local. When you do that, you will find the files that are in F2
under /usr/local.

Each directory and file can have only one name, unless you create a
link. There are symbolic links (like pointers in C) which work with
both directories and files --- and hard links (like another file name)
which work with files and not with directories. You can remove a
directory a link points to and the directory is gone (and the link
remains, pointing to nothing). You can remove a file (file name) that
has a hard link and the file will continue to exist until all the links
have been removed (All the hard links point to the same file like the
file name does, and the file becomes inaccessible when there are no
names to refer to it and only processes using it can still use it. Also
see man 2 unlink.).

You can mount any partition that contains a supported file system to any
directory that doesn't already have a partition mounted to it. Using
appropriate options with the mount command, you can mount a file system
to several directories at the same time. You cannot mount something to
a directory that isn't available, like you must mount (or have
available) /usr (and thus /usr/local) before you can mount something to
/usr/local. Hence the entries in /etc/fstab need to be in the right
order for things to be mounted.

Partitions are not named (unless you label them, maybe). They have
UUIDs, see man blkid.

Now don't go overboard with mounting and keep things simple.


--
Debian testing iad96 brokenarch


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
Archive: 87d30qifwz.fsf@yun.yagibdah.de">http://lists.debian.org/87d30qifwz.fsf@yun.yagibdah.de
 
Old 10-10-2012, 02:33 PM
lee
 
Default Partition Scheme for installing Debian Squeeze

Lisi <lisi.reisz@gmail.com> writes:

> Wally, I really do think that you should just stop worrying and install. It
> doesn't matter if you make mistakes, you can just reinstall.

That's probably what he is trying to avoid. Having to re-install isn't
really fun; it's a waste of time and shouldn't be needed, so why
encourage it.

> go wrong. If you ask 10 people how to partition your system, you will get 10
> different answers.

We have the practical numbers and some experience to provide. The OP
told us what he has available and what he plans to use his computer for,
so it's really easy to suggest something reasonable with which he won't
need to keep installing. The 20 different answers from 10 different
people might be exactly what he's looking for since all the installation
and partitioning guides are all theory.

> questions. And once you have installed you will be able to look at your
> directory tree.

Exactly: We can look at ours and help out. There's someone who seems to
go about installing Debian in a systematic and informed way, reading the
available documentation, trying things out and asking good questions on
the appropriate mailing list. And now we seriously tell him "ah screw
it and just install and if it doesn't work out right you do it again and
again and again until you might get it right eventually"? I would be
ashamed to tell him that.


--
Debian testing iad96 brokenarch


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
Archive: 878vbeiehp.fsf@yun.yagibdah.de">http://lists.debian.org/878vbeiehp.fsf@yun.yagibdah.de
 
Old 10-10-2012, 05:33 PM
Wally Lepore
 
Default Partition Scheme for installing Debian Squeeze

On 10/10/2012 03:22 AM, Wally Lepore wrote:
>> Based on the above, can a directory/partition be named /usr/local ?
>> and /var/mail ? I thought a directory can have only one name (i.e.
>> /usr -or- /local -or- /var -or- /mail).

On Wed, Oct 10, 2012 at 2:17 AM, Linux-Fan <Ma_Sys.ma@web.de> wrote:
> You can have /var on your "main" partition (which also contains "/") and
> mount another partition in the subdirectory "/var/mail".

Hi Linux-Fan,

Appreciate the help. I have to read-up on the file structure in Linux.
I totally understand the concept in windows. But when you said,

>"You can have /var on your "main" partition (which also contains "/")and mount >another partition in the subdirectory "/var/mail".

Can you give me an example please (in a file tree format) such as below?

/var
/var/mail

Thank you


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
Archive: CALDXikr6p9j0koiJXUH0aN3yZntN-C1P0kwcD7Z4wpfVXKFSUg@mail.gmail.com">http://lists.debian.org/CALDXikr6p9j0koiJXUH0aN3yZntN-C1P0kwcD7Z4wpfVXKFSUg@mail.gmail.com
 
Old 10-10-2012, 05:41 PM
Wally Lepore
 
Default Partition Scheme for installing Debian Squeeze

On Wed, Oct 10, 2012 at 3:00 AM, Lisi <lisi.reisz@gmail.com> wrote:
> On Tuesday 09 October 2012 23:41:40 Wally Lepore wrote:
>> An interesting side note: Both identical drives are 'Enhanced IDE'
>> drives (EIDE). However for some reason during the debian set-up, the
>> installer identified them as SCSI drives and labeled them as follows
>>
>> SCSI1 (0,0,0) (sda) -80.0 GB ATA WDC [serial number]
>> SCSI1 (0,1,0) (sdb) -80.0 GB ATA WDC [serial number]
>
> Yes, that it is now policy: all hard/dvdrw drives are sdx, even IDE ones. I
> can't remember whether that came in with Squeeze or Lenny.

Ok Lisi, sounds good. Thank you.


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
Archive: http://lists.debian.org/CALDXikowKA6vN6a3dp0p1C2owGeX_vNHhZAoRs0ESaGO4=NwM Q@mail.gmail.com
 

Thread Tools




All times are GMT. The time now is 12:31 PM.

VBulletin, Copyright ©2000 - 2014, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
Content Relevant URLs by vBSEO ©2007, Crawlability, Inc.
Copyright 2007 - 2008, www.linux-archive.org