FAQ Search Today's Posts Mark Forums Read
» Video Reviews

» Linux Archive

Linux-archive is a website aiming to archive linux email lists and to make them easily accessible for linux users/developers.


» Sponsor

» Partners

» Sponsor

Go Back   Linux Archive > Debian > Debian User

 
 
LinkBack Thread Tools
 
Old 01-29-2009, 03:52 PM
Reid Priedhorsky
 
Default USB disk fails when accessed after idle for some hours

All,

I have a USB disk (a 320GB Western Digital My Passport) which is
exhibiting the following problem.

When first hooked up and mounted, it works fine. I've successfully
transferred 100's of GB onto the disk.

However, if left idle for some hours, it fails when accessed, with a
spontaneous USB disconnect and reconnect of the device (log excerpts below).

Some hours later, it still gives immediate I/O errors when accessed (e.g.
with ls), but unmounting and re-mounting the drive makes it work again.
(It might have also needed a physical unplug and re-plug once, but I don't
recall for sure.)

It is a 2.5" disk with no external power supply, just power from USB. This
happens in multiple port group and multiple cables. I have another USB
disk, this one a 3.5" IDE drive which I installed in a USB enclosure
myself, that does have external power, that works with no problems.

Now, the unmount/remount cycle suggests that I could perhaps work around
the problem with automount. But, if the disk is just plain defective, I
don't want to paper over the problem.

I wonder if the computer can't provide enough power to run the device (it
exceeds the 500mA/port limit, though that was NOT clear in the newegg
description). However, if that's true, why does it only fail after a long
idle?

Thoughts?

Many thanks in advance,

Reid


Log excerpt 1 (failure during stat()):

Jan 29 02:27:07 reidster kernel: [7125216.194039] usb 4-4: USB disconnect, address 12
Jan 29 02:27:07 reidster kernel: [7125216.198039] sd 23:0:0:0: [sdc] Result: hostbyte=DID_NO_CONNECT driverbyte=DRIVER_OK,SUGGEST_OK
Jan 29 02:27:07 reidster kernel: [7125216.198039] end_request: I/O error, dev sdc, sector 12313
Jan 29 02:27:07 reidster kernel: [7125216.214034] EXT3-fs error (device sdc1): ext3_find_entry: reading directory #2 offset 0
Jan 29 02:27:07 reidster kernel: [7125216.214034] Buffer I/O error on device sdc1, logical block 0
Jan 29 02:27:07 reidster kernel: [7125216.214034] lost page write due to I/O error on sdc1
Jan 29 02:27:14 reidster kernel: [7125224.462581] usb 4-4: new high speed USB device using ehci_hcd and address 13
Jan 29 02:27:14 reidster kernel: [7125224.627320] usb 4-4: configuration #1 chosen from 1 choice
Jan 29 02:27:14 reidster kernel: [7125224.630074] scsi24 : SCSI emulation for USB Mass Storage devices
Jan 29 02:27:14 reidster kernel: [7125224.630074] usb-storage: device found at 13
Jan 29 02:27:14 reidster kernel: [7125224.630074] usb-storage: waiting for device to settle before scanning
Jan 29 02:27:14 reidster kernel: [7125224.630074] usb 4-4: New USB device found, idVendor=1058, idProduct=0704
Jan 29 02:27:14 reidster kernel: [7125224.630074] usb 4-4: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3
Jan 29 02:27:14 reidster kernel: [7125224.630074] usb 4-4: Product: External HDD
Jan 29 02:27:14 reidster kernel: [7125224.630074] usb 4-4: Manufacturer: Western Digital
Jan 29 02:27:14 reidster kernel: [7125224.630074] usb 4-4: SerialNumber: 575845583038564630313531
Jan 29 02:27:19 reidster kernel: [7125230.124765] usb-storage: device scan complete
Jan 29 02:27:19 reidster kernel: [7125230.125182] scsi 24:0:0:0: Direct-Access WD 3200BMV External 1.05 PQ: 0 ANSI: 4
Jan 29 02:27:19 reidster kernel: [7125230.127728] sd 24:0:0:0: [sdd] 625142448 512-byte hardware sectors (320073 MB)
Jan 29 02:27:19 reidster kernel: [7125230.127728] sd 24:0:0:0: [sdd] Write Protect is off
Jan 29 02:27:19 reidster kernel: [7125230.127728] sd 24:0:0:0: [sdd] Mode Sense: 21 00 00 00
Jan 29 02:27:19 reidster kernel: [7125230.127728] sd 24:0:0:0: [sdd] Assuming drive cache: write through
Jan 29 02:27:19 reidster kernel: [7125230.127728] sd 24:0:0:0: [sdd] 625142448 512-byte hardware sectors (320073 MB)
Jan 29 02:27:19 reidster kernel: [7125230.131727] sd 24:0:0:0: [sdd] Write Protect is off
Jan 29 02:27:19 reidster kernel: [7125230.131727] sd 24:0:0:0: [sdd] Mode Sense: 21 00 00 00
Jan 29 02:27:19 reidster kernel: [7125230.131727] sd 24:0:0:0: [sdd] Assuming drive cache: write through
Jan 29 02:27:19 reidster kernel: [7125230.131727] sdd: sdd1
Jan 29 02:27:19 reidster kernel: [7125230.183728] sd 24:0:0:0: [sdd] Attached SCSI disk
Jan 29 02:27:19 reidster kernel: [7125230.183728] sd 24:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg3 type 0


Log excerpt 2 (failure while writing actual data, though later fsck
revealed no problems):

Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127050] usb 8-2: USB disconnect, address 12
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127050] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127057] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127060] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127063] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127065] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127068] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127070] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127073] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127076] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127079] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127082] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127084] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127087] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127090] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127093] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127095] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127098] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127100] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.127103] ehci_hcd 0000:00:1d.7: dev 2 ep2out scatterlist error -108/-108
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128238] sd 18:0:0:0: [sdc] Result: hostbyte=DID_ERROR driverbyte=DRIVER_OK,SUGGEST_OK
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128242] end_request: I/O error, dev sdc, sector 238251433
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128246] Buffer I/O error on device sdc1, logical block 29781429
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128248] lost page write due to I/O error on sdc1
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128253] Buffer I/O error on device sdc1, logical block 29781430
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128254] lost page write due to I/O error on sdc1
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128257] Buffer I/O error on device sdc1, logical block 29781431
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128259] lost page write due to I/O error on sdc1
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128261] Buffer I/O error on device sdc1, logical block 29781432
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128263] lost page write due to I/O error on sdc1
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128266] Buffer I/O error on device sdc1, logical block 29781433
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128267] lost page write due to I/O error on sdc1
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128270] Buffer I/O error on device sdc1, logical block 29781434
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128272] lost page write due to I/O error on sdc1
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128274] Buffer I/O error on device sdc1, logical block 29781435
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128276] lost page write due to I/O error on sdc1
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128278] Buffer I/O error on device sdc1, logical block 29781436
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128280] lost page write due to I/O error on sdc1
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128282] Buffer I/O error on device sdc1, logical block 29781437
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128284] lost page write due to I/O error on sdc1
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128287] Buffer I/O error on device sdc1, logical block 29781438
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128288] lost page write due to I/O error on sdc1
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128318] sd 18:0:0:0: [sdc] Result: hostbyte=DID_NO_CONNECT driverbyte=DRIVER_OK,SUGGEST_OK
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128321] end_request: I/O error, dev sdc, sector 238251673
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128373] Aborting journal on device sdc1.
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128389] journal commit I/O error
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128522] ext3_abort called.
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128522] EXT3-fs error (device sdc1): ext3_journal_start_sb: Detected aborted journal
Jan 27 02:30:43 reidster kernel: [6908883.128522] Remounting filesystem read-only
Jan 27 02:30:48 reidster kernel: [6908889.687113] usb 8-2: new high speed USB device using ehci_hcd and address 13
Jan 27 02:30:48 reidster kernel: [6908889.849426] usb 8-2: configuration #1 chosen from 1 choice
Jan 27 02:30:48 reidster kernel: [6908889.849426] scsi19 : SCSI emulation for USB Mass Storage devices
Jan 27 02:30:48 reidster kernel: [6908889.849426] usb-storage: device found at 13
Jan 27 02:30:48 reidster kernel: [6908889.849426] usb-storage: waiting for device to settle before scanning
Jan 27 02:30:48 reidster kernel: [6908889.849426] usb 8-2: New USB device found, idVendor=1058, idProduct=0704
Jan 27 02:30:48 reidster kernel: [6908889.849426] usb 8-2: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3
Jan 27 02:30:48 reidster kernel: [6908889.849426] usb 8-2: Product: External HDD
Jan 27 02:30:48 reidster kernel: [6908889.849426] usb 8-2: Manufacturer: Western Digital
Jan 27 02:30:48 reidster kernel: [6908889.849426] usb 8-2: SerialNumber: 575845583038564630313531
Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.487891] usb-storage: device scan complete
Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.487891] scsi 19:0:0:0: Direct-Access WD 3200BMV External 1.05 PQ: 0 ANSI: 4
Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.487891] sd 19:0:0:0: [sdd] 625142448 512-byte hardware sectors (320073 MB)
Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.487891] sd 19:0:0:0: [sdd] Write Protect is off
Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.487891] sd 19:0:0:0: [sdd] Mode Sense: 21 00 00 00
Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.487891] sd 19:0:0:0: [sdd] Assuming drive cache: write through
Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.487891] sd 19:0:0:0: [sdd] 625142448 512-byte hardware sectors (320073 MB)
Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.495789] sd 19:0:0:0: [sdd] Write Protect is off
Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.495789] sd 19:0:0:0: [sdd] Mode Sense: 21 00 00 00
Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.495789] sd 19:0:0:0: [sdd] Assuming drive cache: write through
Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.495789] sdd: sdd1
Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.548364] sd 19:0:0:0: [sdd] Attached SCSI disk
Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.548364] sd 19:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg3 type 0


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
 
Old 01-29-2009, 06:40 PM
"Clifford W. Hansen"
 
Default USB disk fails when accessed after idle for some hours

On Thursday 29 January 2009 18:52:08 Reid Priedhorsky wrote:
> ClamAV 0.94.2 signatures .
>
> All,
>
> I have a USB disk (a 320GB Western Digital My Passport) which is
> exhibiting the following problem.
>
> When first hooked up and mounted, it works fine. I've successfully
> transferred 100's of GB onto the disk.
>
> However, if left idle for some hours, it fails when accessed, with a
> spontaneous USB disconnect and reconnect of the device (log excerpts
> below).
>
> Some hours later, it still gives immediate I/O errors when accessed (e.g.
> with ls), but unmounting and re-mounting the drive makes it work again.
> (It might have also needed a physical unplug and re-plug once, but I don't
> recall for sure.)
>
> It is a 2.5" disk with no external power supply, just power from USB. This
> happens in multiple port group and multiple cables. I have another USB
> disk, this one a 3.5" IDE drive which I installed in a USB enclosure
> myself, that does have external power, that works with no problems.
>
> Now, the unmount/remount cycle suggests that I could perhaps work around
> the problem with automount. But, if the disk is just plain defective, I
> don't want to paper over the problem.
>
> I wonder if the computer can't provide enough power to run the device (it
> exceeds the 500mA/port limit, though that was NOT clear in the newegg
> description). However, if that's true, why does it only fail after a long
> idle?
>
> Thoughts?
>
> Many thanks in advance,
>
> Reid

This looks similar to a problem I have with a 500G Toshiba drive.

Have you tried this on a USB 1 port? does it do the same?

PS. I still don't know why mine dies. (at work I have a couple of 1Tb drives
that work fine on USB2)
--
Thank you,

Clifford W. Hansen
PHP Developer / Linux Administrator

(Mobile/SMS) +27 82 883 8677
(Fax) +27 86 503 0634
(E-Mail/Jabber/GMail) clifford@nighthawk.co.za
(GPG) 0x936D6C19
(Web) http://nighthawk.co.za/

"We have seen strange things today!"

() ascii ribbon campaign - against html e-mail
/ www.asciiribbon.org - against proprietary attachments


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
 
Old 01-29-2009, 07:54 PM
Tzafrir Cohen
 
Default USB disk fails when accessed after idle for some hours

On Thu, Jan 29, 2009 at 10:52:08AM -0600, Reid Priedhorsky wrote:

> I wonder if the computer can't provide enough power to run the device (it
> exceeds the 500mA/port limit, though that was NOT clear in the newegg
> description). However, if that's true, why does it only fail after a long
> idle?

One thing you can try: those enclosures usually come with a cable that
allows you getting the USB power supply from a different USB port. Maybe
try using it?

--
Tzafrir Cohen | tzafrir@jabber.org | VIM is
http://tzafrir.org.il | | a Mutt's
tzafrir@cohens.org.il | | best
ICQ# 16849754 | | friend


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
 
Old 01-29-2009, 07:55 PM
Ron Johnson
 
Default USB disk fails when accessed after idle for some hours

On 01/29/2009 10:52 AM, Reid Priedhorsky wrote:

All,

I have a USB disk (a 320GB Western Digital My Passport) which is
exhibiting the following problem.

When first hooked up and mounted, it works fine. I've successfully
transferred 100's of GB onto the disk.

However, if left idle for some hours, it fails when accessed, with a
spontaneous USB disconnect and reconnect of the device (log excerpts below).

Some hours later, it still gives immediate I/O errors when accessed (e.g.
with ls), but unmounting and re-mounting the drive makes it work again.
(It might have also needed a physical unplug and re-plug once, but I don't
recall for sure.)

It is a 2.5" disk with no external power supply, just power from USB. This
happens in multiple port group and multiple cables. I have another USB
disk, this one a 3.5" IDE drive which I installed in a USB enclosure
myself, that does have external power, that works with no problems.

Now, the unmount/remount cycle suggests that I could perhaps work around
the problem with automount. But, if the disk is just plain defective, I
don't want to paper over the problem.

I wonder if the computer can't provide enough power to run the device (it
exceeds the 500mA/port limit, though that was NOT clear in the newegg
description). However, if that's true, why does it only fail after a long
idle?

Thoughts?

Many thanks in advance,

Reid


Log excerpt 1 (failure during stat()):

Jan 29 02:27:07 reidster kernel: [7125216.194039] usb 4-4: USB disconnect, address 12
Jan 29 02:27:07 reidster kernel: [7125216.198039] sd 23:0:0:0: [sdc] Result: hostbyte=DID_NO_CONNECT driverbyte=DRIVER_OK,SUGGEST_OK

[snip]

Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.548364] sd 19:0:0:0: [sdd] Attached SCSI disk
Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.548364] sd 19:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg3 type 0


Could it be going into hibernation or sleep?

--
Ron Johnson, Jr.
Jefferson LA USA

"I am not surprised, for we live long and are celebrated poopers."


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
 
Old 01-29-2009, 10:31 PM
Emanoil Kotsev
 
Default USB disk fails when accessed after idle for some hours

>>
>> Log excerpt 1 (failure during stat()):
>>
>> Jan 29 02:27:07 reidster kernel: [7125216.194039] usb 4-4: USB
>> disconnect, address 12 Jan 29 02:27:07 reidster kernel: [7125216.198039]
>> sd 23:0:0:0: [sdc] Result: hostbyte=DID_NO_CONNECT
>> driverbyte=DRIVER_OK,SUGGEST_OK
> [snip]
>> Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.548364] sd 19:0:0:0: [sdd]
>> Attached SCSI disk Jan 27 02:30:53 reidster kernel: [6908896.548364] sd
>> 19:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg3 type 0
>
> Could it be going into hibernation or sleep?
>

Is it possible that you are using custom initrd or whatever. watch out to
load ehci_hcd before uhci/ohci drivers

also possibly read about powerof on drives.

if it's not the cable or the wrong way drivers are loaded it might be
some "feature" and I doubt that if it is such kind of "feature" you are the
only one, so look for information about this drive model and series. often
people need firmware upgrade to have the drives work. I still didn't.

so anything is possible.

Any raid or high bandwidth activities on the drive???

regards


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
 
Old 02-04-2009, 02:52 PM
Reid Priedhorsky
 
Default USB disk fails when accessed after idle for some hours

On Thu, 29 Jan 2009 22:00:13 +0100, Ron Johnson wrote:

> On 01/29/2009 10:52 AM, Reid Priedhorsky wrote:
>> All,
>>
>> I have a USB disk (a 320GB Western Digital My Passport) which is
>> exhibiting the following problem.
>>
>> When first hooked up and mounted, it works fine. I've successfully
>> transferred 100's of GB onto the disk.
>>
>> However, if left idle for some hours, it fails when accessed, with a
>> spontaneous USB disconnect and reconnect of the device (log excerpts below).
>
> Could it be going into hibernation or sleep?

hdparm -S0 (turning off spin-down) fixes the problem.

(hdparm -B2555 - turn off advanced power management - doesn't help.)

Thanks for the suggestions, folks!

I am going to set up automount and see if that also helps. I will report
back in a couple of weeks.

Reid


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
 
Old 03-10-2009, 02:33 PM
Reid Priedhorsky
 
Default USB disk fails when accessed after idle for some hours

On Wed, 04 Feb 2009 17:20:06 +0100, Reid Priedhorsky wrote:
>
> On Thu, 29 Jan 2009 22:00:13 +0100, Ron Johnson wrote:
>
>> On 01/29/2009 10:52 AM, Reid Priedhorsky wrote:
>>> All,
>>>
>>> I have a USB disk (a 320GB Western Digital My Passport) which is
>>> exhibiting the following problem.
>>>
>>> When first hooked up and mounted, it works fine. I've successfully
>>> transferred 100's of GB onto the disk.
>>>
>>> However, if left idle for some hours, it fails when accessed, with a
>>> spontaneous USB disconnect and reconnect of the device (log excerpts below).
>>
>> Could it be going into hibernation or sleep?
>
> hdparm -S0 (turning off spin-down) fixes the problem.
>
> (hdparm -B2555 - turn off advanced power management - doesn't help.)
>
> Thanks for the suggestions, folks!
>
> I am going to set up automount and see if that also helps. I will report
> back in a couple of weeks.

Automount (autofs) does not help.

Reid


--
To UNSUBSCRIBE, email to debian-user-REQUEST@lists.debian.org
with a subject of "unsubscribe". Trouble? Contact listmaster@lists.debian.org
 

Thread Tools




All times are GMT. The time now is 11:43 PM.

VBulletin, Copyright ©2000 - 2014, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
Content Relevant URLs by vBSEO ©2007, Crawlability, Inc.
Copyright 2007 - 2008, www.linux-archive.org