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Old 10-25-2008, 05:02 AM
"Javier Vasquez"
 
Default Partitioning Scheme

Hi,

I'm about to install a new Debian system. Previously what I've done
is to create 3 partitions (/, /boot, swap), but now that I have the
oporttunity, I'd like to do things differently. I was reading the
Debian reference guide (the security part), and also openBsd
partitioning schemes, and they both agree that having specific storage
areas in different isolated sections (partitions in this case), would
help a lot for security reasons, so that for example a section won't
grow beyond its limits (inhibiting other pieces of the system to
operate correctly), and also some speed reasons are argued as well,
...

Well, The following scheme is proposed (from what I read btoh from
openBsd and Debian reference guide):

Partition Suggested Size (openBsd)

/ 150 M
/usr 6 G
/var 80 M
/tmp 120 M
/home 4 G
/boot
/opt

/usr/local
/usr/src 4 G <= Source compilation oriented.
/var/log 150 M
/var/tmp 1 G
/var/www
/var/mail

/var/spool/mail
/var/cache/apt

However I'm not sure about those numbers, and besides there's no clear
size for ALL targets. Is there some other documentation around with
sizes suggestions? I understand this, like anything else is, "well,
it depends"... My intention is to install a web/mail/printer/...
server, multiuser, and I also want users to still be able to keep
multimedia at their homes, and I want a secure scheme as possible as
well, etc. I count with a 180 G...

Any suggestions, specially to fill in the sizes, would be helpful.
Notice my previous approaches would consist on a 500M /boot, a 1G swap
(the box has 512M ram), and ~6.5G /, but I want to change that,

Thanks,

--
Javier


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Old 10-25-2008, 07:20 AM
Andrei Popescu
 
Default Partitioning Scheme

On Fri,24.Oct.08, 23:02:51, Javier Vasquez wrote:

> Well, The following scheme is proposed (from what I read btoh from
> openBsd and Debian reference guide):
>
> Partition Suggested Size (openBsd)
>
> / 150 M
> /usr 6 G
> /var 80 M

That's waaay to small!

> Any suggestions, specially to fill in the sizes, would be helpful.
> Notice my previous approaches would consist on a 500M /boot, a 1G swap
> (the box has 512M ram), and ~6.5G /, but I want to change that,

Try running as root:

du -hx --max-depth=1 /

Might take a while, but you should get a list with your top-level dirs
and what they are using now. This could be a good basis on planning your
layout. One idea would be to use double the size of what you are using
now for and all the rest to /home

Regards,
Andrei
--
If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough.
(Albert Einstein)
 
Old 10-25-2008, 12:14 PM
Eduardo M KALINOWSKI
 
Default Partitioning Scheme

Javier Vasquez wrote:
> Hi,
>
> I'm about to install a new Debian system. Previously what I've done
> is to create 3 partitions (/, /boot, swap), but now that I have the
> oporttunity, I'd like to do things differently. I was reading the
> Debian reference guide (the security part), and also openBsd
> partitioning schemes, and they both agree that having specific storage
> areas in different isolated sections (partitions in this case), would
> help a lot for security reasons, so that for example a section won't
> grow beyond its limits (inhibiting other pieces of the system to
> operate correctly), and also some speed reasons are argued as well,
> ...
>

I personally don't see much reason for separating /usr, /var, or even
sub-directories of /var in a general purpose desktop system. Also, I
don't split /boot in its separate partition unless it's necessary (such
as when / is in LVM or some other thing not directly accessible to the
boot loader).

I'd certainly put /home in a separate partition, so you can reinstall
the system without losing your personal data. Putting /usr/local in a
separate partition is also interesting for the same reason (and /opt, if
you install software there).

It may also be interesting to use LVM, this makes resizing partitions
easier.

My scheme would be something like:

/ - 10Gb should be more than enough
/boot - 500Mb, if it must be separate
swap - depends, 1 or 2Gb
/usr/local - depends on what you intend to install, for me 2Gb are enough
The rest to /home (where space is never enough ...)

--
The soul would have no rainbow had the eyes no tears.

Eduardo M KALINOWSKI
eduardo@kalinowski.com.br
http://move.to/hpkb


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Old 10-25-2008, 02:48 PM
"Nuno Magalhães"
 
Default Partitioning Scheme

As Eduardo suggested, LVM is a good bet since it alows you to resize
partitions. This is my partition scheme for my desktop (which i intend
to reinstall soon):

deb64:~# df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda2 23G 6.4G 16G 30% /
tmpfs 991M 8.0K 991M 1% /lib/init/rw
udev 10M 88K 10M 1% /dev
tmpfs 991M 0 991M 0% /dev/shm
/dev/sda4 108G 78G 25G 76% /home

The / partition has too much unused space and there are some 15GB of
the disk take by an unused XP. Maybe i'll play with virtual machines
later on if i really need something specific from Redmond. The /home
partition has 25GB free after a superficial sweet of unused files
(movies), it used to be 99% full. If i only had the / partition that
would cause me problems, as you stated. (luckily my mldonkey will halt
if /home is beyond a limit).

Normally i choose only two partitions: / and /home, that suits my
needs for a desktop system. If you're serving stuff, separating /var
might be good. I just don't know why does Debian create two
similar-sized tmpfs if i already allocate swap as well.

I'm considering LVM for this machine.

My €0.02

--
Nuno Magalhães
 
Old 10-25-2008, 03:49 PM
Manoj Srivastava
 
Default Partitioning Scheme

Hi,

Here is my laptop partition, with sizes and the amount that is
free.
,----
| Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
| /dev/mapper/spark_vg-root_lv
| 4.0G 554M 3.2G 15% /
| /dev/mapper/spark_vg-home_lv
| 24G 7.4G 16G 33% /home
| /dev/mapper/spark_vg-usr_lv
| 12G 5.7G 5.6G 51% /usr
| /dev/mapper/spark_vg-ulocal_lv
| 16G 3.9G 12G 26% /usr/local
| /dev/mapper/spark_vg-var_lv
| 7.9G 3.1G 4.5G 41% /var
| /dev/sda3 122M 52M 65M 45% /boot
`----

All of /dev/mapper/spark_vg is encrypted, so I do need the
/boot. I also do not mount /boot by default. Since there is only /boot
and one giant encrypted lvm partition, I can grow and shrink my
partitions if needed.

Here are bits from /etc/fstab (columns removed to fit in 80
columns). /usr is mounted read-only. No deices are allowed in user home
directories. No suid programs are allowed in /home, /usr/local, and
/var.
,----
| / noatime,user_xattr,errors=remount-ro
| /boot noatime,defaults,rw,noauto,user_xattr
| /home noatime,nodev,nosuid,user_xattr,rw
| /usr noatime,defaults,ro,user_xattr
| /usr/local noatime,nodev,nosuid,user_xattr
| /var noatime,nodev,nosuid,user_xattr
`----

manoj
--
"If at first you don't succeed, try again. Then quit. There's no use
being a damn fool about it." -W.C.Fields
Manoj Srivastava <srivasta@acm.org> <http://www.golden-gryphon.com/>
1024D/BF24424C print 4966 F272 D093 B493 410B 924B 21BA DABB BF24 424C


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Old 10-25-2008, 06:54 PM
"Kelly Clowers"
 
Default Partitioning Scheme

On Fri, Oct 24, 2008 at 10:02 PM, Javier Vasquez <jevv.cr@gmail.com> wrote:
> Hi,
>
> I'm about to install a new Debian system. Previously what I've done
> is to create 3 partitions (/, /boot, swap), but now that I have the
> oporttunity, I'd like to do things differently. I was reading the
> Debian reference guide (the security part), and also openBsd
> partitioning schemes, and they both agree that having specific storage
> areas in different isolated sections (partitions in this case), would
> help a lot for security reasons, so that for example a section won't
> grow beyond its limits (inhibiting other pieces of the system to
> operate correctly), and also some speed reasons are argued as well,
> ...
>
> Well, The following scheme is proposed (from what I read btoh from
> openBsd and Debian reference guide):
>
> Partition Suggested Size (openBsd)
>
> / 150 M
> /usr 6 G
> /var 80 M
> /tmp 120 M
> /home 4 G
> /boot
> /opt
>
> /usr/local
> /usr/src 4 G <= Source compilation oriented.
> /var/log 150 M
> /var/tmp 1 G
> /var/www
> /var/mail
>
> /var/spool/mail
> /var/cache/apt
>
> However I'm not sure about those numbers, and besides there's no clear
> size for ALL targets. Is there some other documentation around with
> sizes suggestions? I understand this, like anything else is, "well,
> it depends"... My intention is to install a web/mail/printer/...
> server, multiuser, and I also want users to still be able to keep
> multimedia at their homes, and I want a secure scheme as possible as
> well, etc. I count with a 180 G...
>
> Any suggestions, specially to fill in the sizes, would be helpful.
> Notice my previous approaches would consist on a 500M /boot, a 1G swap
> (the box has 512M ram), and ~6.5G /, but I want to change that,


Unless you use an unusual file system, or encryption or something,
I don't see a reason to have a separate /boot.

My root (no var, tmp, usr, or home) is 195 MB right now, so I would
suggest *at least* 500 MB ( I have 2 GB for plenty of room).

While it is true that I install lots of unneeded crap, my /usr is 16 GB
in size right now. I would use at least 10 GB of /usr. But at the same
time I don't split anything under /usr onto separate partitions. I don't
see a need at all. Maybe /usr/local if I was going to have tons of
compiled from tarball/vcs code.

I have never been clear on this but it seems like /opt is just what
Red Hat uses instead of /usr/local. I don't even have an /opt dir.

I see no need to break /var into pieces. A single var partition should
be enough. Mine has about 5 gigs, 1.1 GBs used.

My /tmp contains about 400 MB of stuff at the moment, and I am
not even doing anything that would use it intensively. I would say
at least 1 GB ( I have 16 GB, mainly because I had leftover space
on that drive)

I keep my web site in /srv/www. This is following the Filesystem
Hierarchy Standard [1]. I don't run a mail sever right now, but if
I did, I would keep the mail in /svr/mail, not the recommended
/var/mail. That's just me, though.


Andrei Popescu said:
>
>du -hx --max-depth=1 /

Personally, I have this in my .aliases file:

alias ds='du --max-depth=1 -h'

(ds = directory size)

I find it very useful, especially since I don't use a graphical
file manger much.


[1] http://www.pathname.com/fhs/pub/fhs-2.3.html


Cheers,
Kelly Clowers


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Old 10-27-2008, 11:55 AM
ss11223
 
Default Partitioning Scheme

On Oct 25, 1:10*am, "Javier Vasquez" <jevv...@gmail.com> wrote:
> Hi,
>
> I'm about to install a new Debian system. *Previously what I've done
> is to create 3 partitions (/, /boot, swap), but now that I have the
> oporttunity, I'd like to do things differently. *I was reading the
> Debian reference guide (the security part), and also openBsd
> partitioning schemes, and they both agree that having specific storage
> areas in different isolated sections (partitions in this case), would
> help a lot for security reasons, so that for example a section won't
> grow beyond its limits (inhibiting other pieces of the system to
> operate correctly), and also some speed reasons are argued as well,
> ...
>
> Well, The following scheme is proposed (from what I read btoh from
> openBsd and Debian reference guide):
>
> Partition * * * * * * * Suggested Size (openBsd)
>
> / * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 150 * M
> /usr * * * * * * * * * * * *6 * * * G
> /var * * * * * * * * * * * *80 * * M
> /tmp * * * * * * * * * * *120 * *M
> /home * * * * * * * * * 4 * * * *G
> /boot
> /opt
>
> /usr/local
> /usr/src * * * * * * * * *4 * * * *G * * * * *<= *Source compilation oriented.
> /var/log * * * * * * * * *150 * M
> /var/tmp * * * * * * * * 1 * * * G
> /var/www
> /var/mail
>
> /var/spool/mail
> /var/cache/apt
>
> However I'm not sure about those numbers, and besides there's no clear
> size for ALL targets. *Is there some other documentation around with
> sizes suggestions? *I understand this, like anything else is, "well,
> it depends"... *My intention is to install a web/mail/printer/...
> server, multiuser, and I also want users to still be able to keep
> multimedia at their homes, and I want a secure scheme as possible as
> well, etc. *I count with a 180 G...
>
> Any suggestions, specially to fill in the sizes, would be helpful.
> Notice my previous approaches would consist on a 500M /boot, a 1G swap
> (the box has 512M ram), and ~6.5G /, but I want to change that,
>
> Thanks,
>
> --
> Javier


Although it's not always recommended to have / on a LVM, I have
successfully
used three partitions on my systems:

/boot
LVM Group
swap

and then create in the LVM all of the other partitions I want. Then,
if needed, it's
easy to change the size of any partition if I had the initial size
wrong.

Stuart


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