I did a reinstallation, which did not help. During the reinstallation I have chosen a generic kernel version, with a partially installed Intel Wireless driver (see bug 689416): only the iwlwifi-6000-4.ucode file was used.
After that, I went into the rescue mode from a boot medium (USB stick). From there, I installed linux-image-3.2.0-4-amd64 onto the laptop and rebooted. The laptop failed to boot with the new kernel either. The recovery modes are not working any more either.
Now it is pretty reproducible that both current testing and unstable kernels completely fail to work on (my variant of) Dell Precision M6700. Link:
Please repair the kernel.
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