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Old 01-05-2010, 09:44 PM
Matt
 
Default Software RAID1 Disk I/O

I just installed CentOS 5.4 64 bit release on a 1.9ghz CPU with 8gB of
RAM. It has 2 Western Digital 1.5TB SATA2 drives in RAID1.

[root@server ~]# df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/md2 1.4T 1.4G 1.3T 1% /
/dev/md0 99M 19M 76M 20% /boot
tmpfs 4.0G 0 4.0G 0% /dev/shm
[root@server ~]#

Its barebones right now. Nothing really running. I intended to move
our current email server over to it eventually. The thing is slow as
mud due to disk I/O though. I have no idea whats going on.

Here is a bit of iostat -x output.

[root@server ~]# iostat -x
Linux 2.6.18-164.9.1.el5 (server.x.us) 01/05/2010

avg-cpu: %user %nice %system %iowait %steal %idle
0.13 0.10 0.03 38.23 0.00 61.51

Device: rrqm/s wrqm/s r/s w/s rsec/s wsec/s avgrq-sz
avgqu-sz await svctm %util
sda 0.18 0.33 0.04 0.20 27.77 4.22 132.30
3.70 15239.91 2560.21 61.91
sda1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.34 0.00 654.72
0.01 12358.84 3704.24 0.19
sda2 0.18 0.00 0.04 0.00 27.30 0.00 742.93
0.30 8065.37 1930.35 7.09
sda3 0.00 0.33 0.01 0.20 0.14 4.22 21.29
3.40 16537.41 3008.03 61.52
sdb 0.19 0.33 0.06 0.20 28.39 4.22 126.29
2.51 9676.49 862.49 22.27
sdb1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.34 0.00 606.29
0.00 2202.03 643.13 0.04
sdb2 0.18 0.00 0.04 0.00 27.30 0.00 724.25
0.10 2579.45 745.76 2.81
sdb3 0.01 0.33 0.02 0.20 0.75 4.22 22.61
2.41 10913.16 988.40 21.74
md2 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.48 0.89 3.87 9.04
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
md1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
md0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.20
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Does anyone have an idea what I have wrong here? This is my first
software RAID install. Built a number of Centos servers without RAID
and they have all worked fine.

Matt
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Old 01-05-2010, 09:50 PM
John R Pierce
 
Default Software RAID1 Disk I/O

Matt wrote:
> Does anyone have an idea what I have wrong here? This is my first
> software RAID install. Built a number of Centos servers without RAID
> and they have all worked fine.
>

wild guess, md is still striping. try...


# mdadm -D /dev/md0
/dev/md0:
Version : 00.90.01
Creation Time : Thu Dec 10 12:58:00 2009
Raid Level : raid10
Array Size : 286743936 (273.46 GiB 293.63 GB)
Device Size : 143371968 (136.73 GiB 146.81 GB)
Raid Devices : 4
Total Devices : 4
Preferred Minor : 0
Persistence : Superblock is persistent

Update Time : Mon Dec 21 16:48:16 2009
State : clean
Active Devices : 4
Working Devices : 4
Failed Devices : 0
Spare Devices : 0

Layout : near=2, far=1
Chunk Size : 64K

UUID : efd5289d:577a741b:16302cca:5b33303f
Events : 0.237213

Number Major Minor RaidDevice State
0 8 33 0 active sync /dev/sdc1
1 8 49 1 active sync /dev/sdd1
2 8 65 2 active sync /dev/sde1
3 8 81 3 active sync /dev/sdf1


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Old 01-05-2010, 09:59 PM
Matt
 
Default Software RAID1 Disk I/O

>> Does anyone have an idea what I have wrong here? *This is my first
>> software RAID install. *Built a number of Centos servers without RAID
>> and they have all worked fine.
>>
>
> wild guess, md is still striping. * try...

I get this:

[root@server ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md0
/dev/md0:
Version : 0.90
Creation Time : Tue Dec 22 23:35:17 2009
Raid Level : raid1
Array Size : 104320 (101.89 MiB 106.82 MB)
Used Dev Size : 104320 (101.89 MiB 106.82 MB)
Raid Devices : 2
Total Devices : 2
Preferred Minor : 0
Persistence : Superblock is persistent

Update Time : Sun Jan 3 04:38:15 2010
State : clean
Active Devices : 2
Working Devices : 2
Failed Devices : 0
Spare Devices : 0

UUID : fc5658f0:7ed7c190:9bc8468e:abc6d2ae
Events : 0.16

Number Major Minor RaidDevice State
0 8 1 0 active sync /dev/sda1
1 8 17 1 active sync /dev/sdb1
[root@server ~]# mdadm -D /dev/md2
/dev/md2:
Version : 0.90
Creation Time : Tue Dec 22 22:01:47 2009
Raid Level : raid1
Array Size : 1456645568 (1389.17 GiB 1491.61 GB)
Used Dev Size : 1456645568 (1389.17 GiB 1491.61 GB)
Raid Devices : 2
Total Devices : 2
Preferred Minor : 2
Persistence : Superblock is persistent

Update Time : Tue Jan 5 16:44:38 2010
State : active
Active Devices : 2
Working Devices : 2
Failed Devices : 0
Spare Devices : 0

UUID : 94f6487b:cb068544:241217e2:db0f5e8a
Events : 0.11

Number Major Minor RaidDevice State
0 8 3 0 active sync /dev/sda3
1 8 19 1 active sync /dev/sdb3
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Old 01-05-2010, 10:15 PM
Les Mikesell
 
Default Software RAID1 Disk I/O

On 1/5/2010 4:44 PM, Matt wrote:
> I just installed CentOS 5.4 64 bit release on a 1.9ghz CPU with 8gB of
> RAM. It has 2 Western Digital 1.5TB SATA2 drives in RAID1.
>
> [root@server ~]# df -h
> Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
> /dev/md2 1.4T 1.4G 1.3T 1% /
> /dev/md0 99M 19M 76M 20% /boot
> tmpfs 4.0G 0 4.0G 0% /dev/shm
> [root@server ~]#
>
> Its barebones right now. Nothing really running. I intended to move
> our current email server over to it eventually. The thing is slow as
> mud due to disk I/O though. I have no idea whats going on.
>
> Here is a bit of iostat -x output.
>
[...]
>
> Does anyone have an idea what I have wrong here? This is my first
> software RAID install. Built a number of Centos servers without RAID
> and they have all worked fine.

Did you just create the RAIDs? It will something that size a few hours
to complete the initial sync. Try 'cat /proc/mdstat' to see when the
sync completes. Until then, expect to have head contention with
anything else that might be trying to use the drives.

--
Les Mikesell
lesmikesell@gmail.com
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Old 01-05-2010, 10:29 PM
Matt
 
Default Software RAID1 Disk I/O

>> I just installed CentOS 5.4 64 bit release on a 1.9ghz CPU with 8gB of
>> RAM. *It has 2 Western Digital 1.5TB SATA2 drives in RAID1.
>>
>> [root@server ~]# df -h
>> Filesystem * * * * * *Size *Used Avail Use% Mounted on
>> /dev/md2 * * * * * * *1.4T *1.4G *1.3T * 1% /
>> /dev/md0 * * * * * * * 99M * 19M * 76M *20% /boot
>> tmpfs * * * * * * * * 4.0G * * 0 *4.0G * 0% /dev/shm
>> [root@server ~]#
>>
>> Its barebones right now. *Nothing really running. *I intended to move
>> our current email server over to it eventually. *The thing is slow as
>> mud due to disk I/O though. *I have no idea whats going on.
>>
>> Here is a bit of iostat -x output.
>>
> [...]
>>
>> Does anyone have an idea what I have wrong here? *This is my first
>> software RAID install. *Built a number of Centos servers without RAID
>> and they have all worked fine.
>
> Did you just create the RAIDs? *It will something that size a few hours to
> complete the initial sync. *Try 'cat /proc/mdstat' to see when the sync
> completes. *Until then, expect to have head contention with anything else
> that might be trying to use the drives.

Here is what I got there. Md1 is swap I beleive:

[root@server ~]# uptime
17:20:54 up 7 days, 3:26, 2 users, load average: 3.41, 2.93, 2.89
[root@server ~]#
[root@server ~]#
[root@server ~]# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid1]
md0 : active raid1 sdb1[1] sda1[0]
104320 blocks [2/2] [UU]

md1 : active raid1 sdb2[1] sda2[0]
8385856 blocks [2/2] [UU]

md2 : active raid1 sdb3[1] sda3[0]
1456645568 blocks [2/2] [UU]

unused devices: <none>
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Old 01-05-2010, 10:45 PM
"Neil Aggarwal"
 
Default Software RAID1 Disk I/O

> [root@server ~]# uptime
> 17:20:54 up 7 days, 3:26, 2 users, load average: 3.41, 2.93, 2.89

I think you need to investigate what is causing the load
to be high. In my experience, software RAID causes some
CPU load, but it should not be sustained unless you have
something doing continuous disk IO.

Neil

--
Neil Aggarwal, (281)846-8957, http://UnmeteredVPS.net
CentOS 5.4 VPS with unmetered bandwidth only $25/month!
No overage charges, 7 day free trial, PayPal, Google Checkout

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Old 01-05-2010, 10:58 PM
John R Pierce
 
Default Software RAID1 Disk I/O

Matt wrote:
> [root@server ~]# uptime
> 17:20:54 up 7 days, 3:26, 2 users, load average: 3.41, 2.93, 2.8

rather high LA for an 'idle' system I'd be looking at top and/oor
atop to see what processes are active, also lsof to see what
files/devices are open.


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Old 01-05-2010, 11:00 PM
Les Mikesell
 
Default Software RAID1 Disk I/O

On 1/5/2010 5:29 PM, Matt wrote:
>>> I just installed CentOS 5.4 64 bit release on a 1.9ghz CPU with 8gB of
>>> RAM. It has 2 Western Digital 1.5TB SATA2 drives in RAID1.
>>>
>>> [root@server ~]# df -h
>>> Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
>>> /dev/md2 1.4T 1.4G 1.3T 1% /
>>> /dev/md0 99M 19M 76M 20% /boot
>>> tmpfs 4.0G 0 4.0G 0% /dev/shm
>>> [root@server ~]#

>>
>> Did you just create the RAIDs? It will something that size a few hours to
>> complete the initial sync. Try 'cat /proc/mdstat' to see when the sync
>> completes. Until then, expect to have head contention with anything else
>> that might be trying to use the drives.
>
> Here is what I got there. Md1 is swap I beleive:
>
> [root@server ~]# uptime
> 17:20:54 up 7 days, 3:26, 2 users, load average: 3.41, 2.93, 2.89
> [root@server ~]#
> [root@server ~]#
> [root@server ~]# cat /proc/mdstat
> Personalities : [raid1]
> md0 : active raid1 sdb1[1] sda1[0]
> 104320 blocks [2/2] [UU]
>
> md1 : active raid1 sdb2[1] sda2[0]
> 8385856 blocks [2/2] [UU]
>
> md2 : active raid1 sdb3[1] sda3[0]
> 1456645568 blocks [2/2] [UU]

That's working normally with the sync completed. Mirrors should run at
close to the speed of a single drive. Maybe you are just expecting too
much from SATA or you have something like an updatedb running. An
'hdparm -tT' against the partitions and md devices should give you an
idea of what the drives can do. And top might show what's causing the
load (but maybe not if it is mostly waiting on disk seeks).

--
Les Mikesell
lesmikesell@gmail.com


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